Figure 3. The latter stipulated that Africans and their families should have a place in Nairobi and other Kenyan towns. View all notes The report also appeared after the Mombasa riots which drew government attention to the fact that inadequate or over expensive housing could cause social discontent. View all notes whereas dwellings for 15, people were required. View all notes settlements of this kind already existed successfully in the Union of South Africa.
Municipal engineer G.
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Fletcher was the author of its plan; Fletcher British specialized in sub tropical housing and had shortly before participated in the conference Housing in Tropical and Sub-tropical countries Mexico, August A similar type of architectural expression would appear in Starehe and Kaloleni some years later. Estate lay-out Ziwani, , G. Source: G. Ogilvie, The Housing of Africans in the urban areas of Kenya.
The Kenya Information Office: Nairobi. Figure 4. Figure 5. Plan and elevation of one-room dwelling, Ziwani, , G. Starehe — , the next estate based on the new policies, was designed by Kenya Government architect Peter Dangerfield. Though it could be related to the fact that Starehe, unlike Ziwani, had to adapt to an already existing settlement Figure 6. Kaloleni — , the then following new estate, was designed by imperial planner A. Hutton who was then employed in British Malesia, and consisted of one-family dwellings.
Estate lay-out Starehe, , P. Figure 6. Ogilvie, The Housing of Africans , 18, 30, 4. In Kaloleni, the central oval facilitates the separation of through- and destination traffic without dividing the estate in two more or less separate parts. Estate lay-out Kaloleni, , A. Figure 7. View all notes The provided variety of medical, educational and recreational facilities supposedly encouraged self-respect and collective values among Africans.
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The planned social hall, for example, was meant for educational and recreational activities writing, reading, cinema shows. View all notes In Kaloleni, shops were even exclusively leased to African traders.
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To reduce rents, AHC suggested a limited number of dwelling types for Ziwani, Starehe and Kaloleni, of which the basic elements could be mass-produced Figures 5 , 8. Consequently, the prevailing type was a family house consisting of one or two rooms, a cooking facility and a veranda. Houses were attached in small rows of two, three or four.
A curtain separated living and sleeping in the one-room variant.
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Kaloleni differed from Ziwani and Starehe in one such housing design; one which was specifically designed to facilitate a rounded ending of the communal green spaces. Plan and elevation of two two-room dwellings, Kaloleni, , A. Figure 8. Figure 9. Plan and elevation of two one-room dwellings, Kaloleni, , A. Kaloleni was eventually realized between and without the planned prayer hall and rest house.
Its social hall fulfilled the role of prayer hall and a primary school was built on the former rest house location. View all notes Actors behind this mutation could not be identified so far. View all notes Their roofing consisting of the same clay tiles as the original buildings 84 84 Bezemer, Estate analysis Kaloleni Nairobi. It seems that Nairobi Municipality wished to mutate the original estate design as little as possible, despite pressing demographic growth Figure 12 — from , inhabitants in , to , in and , in 85 85 Thorton White et al.
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Source: Kenya National Archives. Figure To compare actors, this research makes use of actor-diagrams. A graphical representation of actors in actor-diagram enables their systematic, non-ideologically loaded categorization and visualizes their position in the supposed transmutation processes Figures 11 , Following the ANT-method, the diagrams include pre-existing actors settlement patterns, global as well as local housing and dwelling typologies, state reports and actors of the period itself design proposals, dwellers, architects, planners and functionaries.
Actor-diagram Kariakor estate, Nairobi, — Source: Made by the authors. Actor-diagram Kaloleni estate, Nairobi, — Though similar actor-types played roles in Kariakor and Kaloleni, their characters and connections differ. Categorization and comparison of actors can be made in the form of texts and by using diagrams. Actor-diagrams offer graphical exemplifications of actor-analyses done; they allow easy access and a visual image of research findings, also for academics in other disciplinary fields.
The here presented exploratory research note entailed at least two specific scholarly intentions for the current PhD-project Hybrid Artefacts: actors identified University of Groningen, — No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors. Bezemer is doing a PhD-project on a series of public housing estates from a comparative, historical perspective in four Sub-Saharan cities: Nairobi, Accra, Douala, and Libreville. Skip to Main Content. Search in: This Journal Anywhere.
Advanced search. Journal Planning Perspectives Latest Articles. Submit an article Journal homepage. Published online: 09 Apr View all notes As actors may have an individual or a collective character, they must be approached as such.
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Published online: 09 April Display full size. The garden city concept as new actor, — Evolving the ideas of designing an urban community for native citizens, Nairobi Municipality began to seriously experiment with the international dispersed garden city model from the late s onwards.
Comparing Kariakor and Kaloleni via actor-diagrams To compare actors, this research makes use of actor-diagrams. Disclosure statement No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors.
Article Metrics Views. Article metrics information Disclaimer for citing articles. More Share Options. People also read Article. Published online: 3 Mar Susan Parnell et al. Urban Geography Volume 33, - Issue 4. Published online: 16 May Published online: 11 Jan Ambe J. Njoh Planning Perspectives Volume 24, - Issue 3. Published online: 16 Jun Richard Harris et al.
Planning Perspectives Volume 22, - Issue 2. Published online: 22 Oct That meant studying things that were of an empirical testable nature. He thought that sociology must be based on observation, not intuition or speculation. Comte thus held a vision of sociological theory as based on the model of the natural sciences, particularly the physics of his time.
Settlement Schemes in Tropical Africa
For this reason, he preferred the term social physics to sociology. The first book with the word sociology in its title was assembled in the 19th century by the English philosopher Herbert Spencer. In the United States, the first Sociology course was taught at the University of Kansas, Lawrence in under the title Elements of Sociology the oldest continuing sociology course in America. The first full fledged university department of sociology in the United States was established in at the University of Chicago by Albion W.
Small , who in founded the American Journal of Sociology. International cooperation in sociology began in when Rene Worms founded the small Institut International de Sociologie that was eclipsed by the much larger International Sociologist Association starting in In the American Sociological Association , the world's largest association of professional sociologists, was founded.
Early sociological studies considered the field to be similar to the natural sciences , like physics or biology. As a result, many researchers argued that the methodology used in the natural sciences was perfectly suited for use in the social sciences. The effect of employing the scientific method and stressing empiricism was the distinction of sociology from theology , philosophy , and metaphysics.
This also resulted in sociology being recognized as an empirical science. This early sociological approach, supported by August Comte, led to positivism , a methodological approach based on sociological naturalism. The goal of positivism, like the natural sciences, is prediction. But in the case of sociology, it is prediction of human behavior, which is a complicated proposition. The goal of predicting human behavior was quickly realized to be a bit lofty.
Scientists like Wilhelm Dilthey and Heinrich Rickert argued that the natural world differs from the social world, as human society has culture , unlike the societies of most other animals e. As a result, an additional goal was proposed for sociology. Max Weber  and Wilhelm Dilthey  introduced the concept of verstehen.
Outside observers of a culture relate to an indigenous people on both the observer's and the observeds' own terms in order to comprehend the cultural conditions. While arriving at a verstehen-like insight into a culture employs systematic methodologies like the positivistic approach of predicting human behavior, it is often a more subjective process. The inability of sociology and other social sciences to perfectly predict the behavior of humans or to fully comprehend a different culture has led to the social sciences being labeled "soft sciences.
Any animal as complex as humans is bound to be difficult to fully comprehend. What's more, humans, human society, and human culture are all constantly changing, which means the social sciences will constantly be works in progress. The contrast between positivist sociology and the verstehen approach has been reformulated in modern sociology as a distinction between quantitative and qualitative methodological approaches, respectively.
Quantitative sociology is generally a numerical approach to understanding human behavior.